Front Matter

The following is from Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and Sustainable Farming for Energy Independence


List of Figures

1. A Brief History of Ethanol Fuel

Lamp Fuel and the First Oil Well
Internal Combustion and the First Fuel Alcohol Movement
Chemurgy and the Second Fuel Alcohol Movement
Oil Embargoes and the Third Fuel Alcohol Movement
The Return of Cheap Oil
The End of Cheap Oil & the Rise of Ethanol

2. Will Cheap Oil Return?

Easy Energy
The Rise and Fall of Big Oil
The Search for “Easy Oil”
Geopolitical Considerations
Growing World Oil Consumption
How Long will Oil Production Grow?

3. Economic and Security Benefits

Economic Impact of Biorefineries
Tax Incentives for Ethanol and Oil
Farm Subsidies
Growing Oil Imports
The Hidden Cost of Imported Oil
Hurricane Vulnerability
Cellulosic Diversification

4. Environmental Impact

Measuring Environmental Impact
Greenhouse Gases
Brazilian Ethanol
Groundwater Pollution
Air Pollution
Feedstock Sourcing

5. E10, E85, and Flex-Fuel Vehicles

Running on E10
E10 Price and Fuel Economy
E10 Availability
Running on E85
Flex-Fuel Vehicles
Purchasing a Flex-Fuel Vehicle
E85 Availability
E85 Cost and Fuel Economy

6. Improving Fuel Economy on Ethanol

Fuel Economy on E10
Improving Flex-Fuel Vehicles
Ethanol and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Ethanol Boosting with Direct Injection
Ethanol, Hydrogen, and Fuel Cells
Hydrated Ethanol

7. Food, Farming, and Land Use

Food Prices
Food AND Fuel from Corn
Ethanol and World Hunger
Fossil Fuels and Agriculture
Sustainable Farming
Land Use Issues
Diversifying Energy Crops
High-Diversity Grassland
Enhancing Food Production with Energy Farming

8. Ethanol Production

New Feedstocks
Ethanol from Sugar Feedstocks
Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum
Ethanol from Jerusalem Artichokes
Ethanol from Food Waste
On-Farm Ethanol from Waste Fruit
Ethanol from Beets
Ethanol from Corn Kernels
Adding Value to Coproducts
Ethanol from Field Peas
Ethanol from Grain Sorghum, Wheat, and Barley
Reducing Process Fuel Use
Reducing Water Use
Alternative Process Fuels
Combined Heat and Power
Ethanol-Livestock Integration
Small-Scale Ethanol Production
Ethanol Transportation & Pipeline Issues
Butanol: The Other Alcohol

9. Cellulosic Ethanol

Commercializing Cellulosic Production
Cellulosic Conversion Technologies
Biochemical Methods
Thermochemical Methods
Biogas as a Transportation Fuel
Waste & Coproduct Feedstocks
Agricultural Residue Feedstocks
Dedicated Cellulosic Energy Crops
A Sticky Coproduct
Harvest and Transportation of Feedstocks
The Pyrolysis Route to Cellulosic Ethanol
Regional Biomass Processing Centers
Pipeline Transportation of Corn Stover Silage
Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol
How Much Ethanol Can We Make?

10. Energy Balance: Is Ethanol Renewable?

All BTU’s are Not the Same
Fossil Energy Replacement Ratio
Petroleum Replacement Ratio
Rating Cellulosic Ethanol
Comparing Ethanol and Gasoline
Fuel Economy and Energy Balance
Variables and Trends

11. Facing our Energy Future

Balancing our Energy Budget

Ethanol Questions and Answers
Selected Resources/Bibliography


1-1. Fuel Ethanol Production, 1982–2006
2-1. U.S. Crude Oil Spot Price, 1995–2007
2-2. Percentage of Proved World Oil Reserves by Region, 2005
2-3. World Oil Consumption, 1985–2005
3-1. Estimated Revenue Loss from Tax Incentives for Petroleum and Ethanol
5-1. Same location U.S. National Average Retail Gasoline and E85 Prices, 2006-2007
5-2. Break-even Prices for Gasoline Alternatives Based on Fuel Economy Reduction
6-1. Change in Fuel Economy Using E10 Relative to Ethanol-free Gasoline
7-1. Average Price Paid U.S. Farmers per Bushel of Corn, 1980-2007
7-2. Corn Planted Since 1992 per Market Year
8-1. Ethanol Production Paths
8-2. Ethanol Production by Feedstock, 2006
8-3. Estimated Ethanol Yield by Feedstock
8-4. Estimated Production Cost by Feedstock
8-5. Ethanol Production from Corn Kernels
8-6. Conventional vs. Combined Heat & Power
9-1. The Biochemical Cellulosic Production Process
9-2. Annual Biomass Potential from U.S. Forests and Agriculture
10-1. Calculating Fossil Energy Replacement Ratio for Corn Ethanol
10-2. Calculating Petroleum Replacement Ratio for Corn Ethanol
10-3. Energy Balance Ratios for Ethanol and Gasoline
10-4. U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price, 1996–2007


We extend our thanks and admiration to the farmers, entrepreneurs, politicians, journalists, investors, scientists, engineers, and others striving to make ethanol production and use more efficient and sustainable. This book is about the technologies making ethanol make sense, yet these technologies are reflections of the dreams, ingenuity, foresight, and hard work of many people, past and present.
Thanks to Ed Malewski for composing a poem for this book. Thanks also to those who provided comments, corrections, testimonials, and encouragement. Thanks especially to friends and family members. Their support and advice is indispensable.


This book is designed to provide accurate information about the subject matter covered and is sold with the understanding that the publisher and authors are not providing legal, accounting, investment guidance, or other professional services. This book is not intended to provide all the information on the subject covered or all the information available to the authors and/or publisher. Internet addresses, trade, firm, corporation, or company names, product names, and other resources are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement by the authors or publisher.
While every effort has been made to assure the accuracy of this book, there may be mistakes in content and typography. Therefore, this book should be used as a general introduction to the subject matter covered and not as the ultimate source of information on ethanol, biofuels, and other subjects covered.
This book is written for informational and entertainment purposes only. The authors and Prairie Oak Publishing accept neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to loss, risk, or damage caused or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly, by information in this book.If you do not want to be bound by the disclaimer printed above, you may return this book to the publisher for a full refund.

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